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CNN 10 - May 21, 2021

Special Edition Deepest Point of the Deepest Trench in the World`s Deepest Ocean.

CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Fridays are awesome. I`m Carl Azuz and today`s special edition of CNN 10 take us in depth because you really can`t go

anywhere more in depth than the Challenger Deep, the deepest point of the world`s deepest trench in the world`s deepest ocean. We`re talking about

the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. National Geographic describes it as a scar in the Earth`s crust. It`s located about seven miles beneath the

waves. The trench measures more than 1,500 miles long and it`s 43 miles wide on average. So we`re talking about a pretty big scar overall and the

Challenger Deep is near the southern end of it. It takes a feat of engineering just to get there. It takes hours of diving to hit bottom and

feat [fit] n. a specialized skill; 武艺;技艺

it`s largely an unexplored frontier.

Even though thousands of people have reached the top of the world on Mt. Everest, fewer than 25 have reached the bottom of it in the Challenger

Deep. New Zealander Rob McCallum is one of them. On April 8th, he became the first person from his country to go there and he went along with Tim

Macdonald, the first person from Australia to complete the feat. They sent us this video and everything else you`re about to see. And I had the

opportunity to interview Mr. McCallum about the experience not long after he hit rock bottom and then resurfaced again last month. Let`s dive in.


ROB MCCALLUM, DIVER: It`s the last unexplored frontier on Earth. We know very little about this -- this region that we call the Hadal zone which is

that area of the ocean below 6,000 meters or 20,000 feet.

AZUZ: You just can`t get there in a normal submarine, what sort of vehicle does it take to withstand the pressures there?

MCCALLUM: That`s a very interesting question because pressure is entirely relative. When a spacecraft goes up into space, they`re only experiencing

relative [ˋrɛlətɪv] adj. 成比例的; 与……有关系的,相关的

a -- a pressure change of one atmosphere between the inside of the spacecraft and the outside. We are dealing with a pressure differential of

around 1,100 atmospheres. So we dive in a titanium sphere which is able to withstand 100,000 tons of pressure. Just on the hatch through which we get

hatch [hætʃ] n.(船的)舱口

into the submarine, just the hatch alone has 2.200 tons or around five fully laden Boeing 747 pushing down on it.

AZUZ: Wow. That`s -- that`s incredible. I mean -- somebody can`t go out and -- and buy that. How does one acquire a vehicle like that?

MCCALLUM: This vehicle was made for this specific purpose. It was designed and built by Trident Submarines in Florida specifically to be able

trident [ˋtraɪdnt] n. 三齿鱼叉;(神话中的)三叉戟

to voyage down through seven and a half miles of water column to get to the bottom. And that`s why it`s got kind of an interesting shape. It looks

water column 水柱

like a pillow that`s on its side and that`s so that it can drop down through the water column very, very quickly.

AZUZ: You said very quickly. How long does it take to get to that depth?

MCCALLUM: It takes around four and a half hours to get to the deepest point of the world`s ocean. We go down through the water at about six feet

per second.

AZUZ: And coming back?

MCCALLUM: We`ve released ballast weight on the bottom to -- to spring us off the bottom and head for the surface and so it`s about a three and a

ballast [ˋbæləst] n.【船】压舱物,压载物

half hour ride up.

AZUZ: What are you seeing when you get to the ocean floor in the deepest part of it?

MCCALLUM: This is the most fantastic part of what we`re doing. It`s true exploration. You know, we never know what we`re going to see. Every dive

has yielded something fascinating. Often something new to science. We are seeing creatures for the first time. We are discovering entire landscapes

which were previously unknown.

AZUZ: That`s still a full day just in travel time. So how much time does that give you on the ocean`s floor?

MCCALLUM: We try to stay down for three to five hours on the bottom. You know, it`s a big investment of time and energy. It takes the entire team

to get this vehicle prepared and get it down and so we try to use every minute possible on the bottom. Our submersible has three viewports. One

viewport: 观察孔

for each of the occupants but also one central one that allows us to see down to the sea floor. And we`re also surrounded by very high-

occupant [ˋɑkjəpənt] n.【律】先占取者;实际占有人

definition cameras that are all linked to a screen in front of us and we can look in any direction outside. And that`s important because we don`t

really know where we`re going. We`re almost always the very first humans that have ever been there. And so, although we have a three-dimensional

map that we`ve made the day before, we need a very good view outside to see what`s coming.

Yes, for humans we don`t really fear what we can`t see. And so when you`re in an airline and you`re looking out, you don`t naturally think of the wind

going past at 500 miles an hour and it`s minus 50 out there and there`s not enough air to breathe. We just if I can see a town, or I can see a truck

and the same in the sun there`s no sensation of movement. There`s no sensation of sound. You can`t hear or feel anything from outside. It`s

just a very peaceful, relaxing cruise into the unknown. I think that we know so little about the ocean that we barely understand what questions to

ask let alone have the ability to -- to understand the answers. My role and the role of the team that I work with is to simply open the door. This

is the first vehicle in all of human history that has the ability to reach the deep ocean in any ocean, in any depth, at any time. It`s -- it`s --

it`s akin to the Wright Brothers with the first flying machine. This is just the first baby steps.

akin [əˋkɪn] adj. 近似的

AZUZ: I know the technology might be a way away from creating a, sort of, ocean exploration station that can withstand depths like that. But we have

reported on, there -- there is more funding and investment in underwater exploration stations. I mean, how important would you feel those would be

as contrasted with let`s say the International Space Station?

MCCALLUM: Both are important, don`t get me wrong. I`m not taking a shot at space travel but, you know, space is a vast void, a vacuum that so far

void [vɔɪd] n. 太空,空间

has proved to be lifeless. The ocean is nothing like that. The ocean is full of life. You know, right from the surface all the way down to the

very, very bottom. I think before we leave home and start exploring the heavens, we should at least explore our own backyard more thoroughly. I

think that many of the answers to our collective future are going to be found in the ocean and some of those in the deep ocean. The answers to how

we`re going to handle all the carbon in the atmosphere, the answers to the dynamics of our ocean and how we can erase the -- the decline of the ocean.

But also the things that we might discover, in terms of valuable compounds, medicines and that sort of thing.

AZUZ: So why do you think there`s so much interest in space exploration when we could be exploring what we have right here?

MCCALLUM: I think it`s as simple as when we gaze up at the heavens, we -- we have a sense of wonder what`s out there, you know, what can we find? We

always look skyward because we`re terrestrial mammals. We -- we -- we look up to the heavens. When we look into the water, we don`t really see that

terrestrial [təˋrɛstrɪəl] adj. 地球的;陆地的;陆生的;陆栖的

much. We see an opaque, plain -- plain -- platform that we can pull fish out of, you can go for a swim in but we don`t actually go too far down. You

opaque [oˋpek] adj. 不透明的,不透光的

know, my dive was about 36,000 feet. Most humans never get below about 300 feet. So, there`s a long way to go yet.


AZUZ: So, it appears we`ve barely scratched the surface and there is still so many questions in limbo except how "low" you can go because we know from

limbo [ˋlɪm͵bo] n. 待定状态; 被遗忘状态

those who`ve "plummed" the depths and helped us both "deepen" and reach new heights of understanding. Dougherty Valley High School, shout out to you

our viewers in San Ramon, California. We have one week on the air left in our Spring broadcasting season. So, we hope to see you Monday. I`m Carl

Azuz for CNN.




















feat [fit] n. a specialized skill; 武艺;技艺

relative [ˋrɛlətɪv] adj. 成比例的; 与……有关系的,相关的

hatch [hætʃ] n.(船的)舱口

trident [ˋtraɪdnt] n. 三齿鱼叉;(神话中的)三叉戟

water column 水柱

ballast [ˋbæləst] n.【船】压舱物,压载物

viewport: 观察孔

occupant [ˋɑkjəpənt] n.【律】先占取者;实际占有人

akin [əˋkɪn] adj. 近似的

void [vɔɪd] n. 太空,空间

terrestrial [təˋrɛstrɪəl] adj. 地球的;陆地的;陆生的;陆栖的

opaque [oˋpek] adj. 不透明的,不透光的

limbo [ˋlɪm͵bo] n. 待定状态; 被遗忘状态


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