当前位置:Home 试听教材 Intermediate English Yosemite and the Invention of Wilderness 优胜美地国家公园的人造天工

Yosemite and the Invention of Wilderness 优胜美地国家公园的人造天工








When people consider California’s grand Yosemite Valley, they often think of the valley as a refuge from the modern world, a place undisturbed by the hand of man. The notion that nature is virginal is a powerful, yet erroneous, concept that has influenced American practice in everything from forestry management to landscape photography. And few places have inspired the American idea of an untouched wilderness as greatly as the breathtaking Yosemite Valley.



When white Americans first encountered Yosemite, it was a well-populated landscape: home to the Ahwahneechee Indians. Following clashes between gold rush miners and the Ahwahneechee, the government of California sent the military into Yosemite in 1851 to punish and relocate the Ahwahneechee.



By 1855, the first tourists were beginning to visit the valley. Influential figures such as Frederick Law Olmstead, the man who designed New York’s Central Park, urged that Yosemite be protected. Thus, in 1864, Abraham Lincoln signed a bill putting aside Yosemite “for all time.” The federal government had never before set aside land simply so that people might enjoy it. Great American photographers rushed there to document the so-called uninhabited paradise. But ironically, Yosemite’s original inhabitants, the Ahwahneechee, were removed from the picture before the pictures were taken.




refuge: [ˋrɛfjudʒ] n. 避难所 protection or shelter, as from danger or hardship

virginal:[ˋvɝdʒɪn!] adj. 纯洁的; 处女的 untouched or unsullied; fresh

erroneous: [ɪˋronɪəs] adj. 错误的;不正确的 based on or containing error; mistaken; incorrect

well-populated: adj.人口众多的

clash: [klæʃ] n. 冲突 a conflict, as between opposing or irreconcilable ideas

put aside: 搁置 to hold something in reserve for some purpose

set aside: 留出 to save something for a particular purpose

so-called: [ˋsoˋkɔld] adj. 所谓的 commonly called



Sentence of the Day

They didn’t see the forest for the trees.



not see the forest for the trees 见树不见林 (指注意小处而忽略大处)。






The tale that photography, magazines, even science told of an uninhibited nature was irresistible to nineteenth-century America. Many legendary American photographers, such as Eadweard Muybridge and Ansel Adams, directed their talents towards the Yosemite Valley. They crafted photographs of a landscape unsullied by man, but what these legendary artists did not realize is that the nature they had captured on celluloid was hardly free of human influence.



For one thing, ecologists have determinedthat the Ahwanheechee used fire to burn away brush and saplings in Yosemite. This practice created the park atmosphere for which Yosemite is admired. Moreover, contemporary photographers who were recently recapturing a famous Adams perspective of Yosemite discovered that the renowned photographer had concealed the parking lot from which he took his photograph. Our image of an untouched Yosemite was created by the all-too-much acts of controlling burns and ignoring parking lots.



Appropriately, the view that nature is an unpeopled paradise may be changing. Today, Yosemite’s park rangers again use controlled burns, but this time to prevent uncontrollable forest fires. Photographers are including people and machinery in photographs. Tourist literature is published in English and the Ahwahneechee language. Perhaps, people are coming to recognize their stewardship of nature. Yosemite itself, though, remains implacable in its grandeur.



by Jerry Lin



irresistible [͵ɪrɪˋzɪstəb!] adj. 不可抗拒的;诱人的

craft [kræft] v.【美】精巧地制作

unsullied: [͵ʌnˋsʌlɪd] adj. 未受污染的  not stained or tarnished

celluloid [ˋsɛljə͵lɔɪd] n. 赛璐珞; 电影胶片

sapling [ˋsæplɪŋ] n. 幼树,树苗 a young tree

admire: [ədˋmaɪr] v. 称赞,夸奖regarded with admiration            

conceal [kənˋsil] v. 隐蔽,隐藏 to keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; hide

appropriately: [əˋproprɪ͵etlɪ] adv. 恰如其分地 suitable for a particular person, condition, occasion, or place; fitting

unpeopled [ʌnˋpip!d] adj. 无人的,无居民的

stewardship: [ˋstjuwɚd͵ʃɪp] n. 管理工作 the position of steward

implacable: [ɪmˋplækəb!] adj. 不能安抚的;难平息的 not able to be satisfied or won over

grandeur: [ˋgrændʒɚ] n. 宏伟,壮观 the quality or condition of being grand; magnificence



Sentence of the Day

They’re starting to get the picture.



get the picture 了解情况; 【口】明白; 理解


Yosemite National Park - Spring 2009


Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 1


Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 2


Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 3


Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 4


Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 5

Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 6

Yosemite National Park Documentary - Part 7




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